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FINANCIAL CHRONICLE™ » FINANCIAL CHRONICLE™ » My Share Valuation Formula

My Share Valuation Formula

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1My Share Valuation Formula Empty My Share Valuation Formula Sat Jul 20, 2013 11:09 am

hunter

hunter
Moderator
Moderator
For some time, I've been trialing out few formulas to find out how much a share would actually worth. However, most of those formulas were just results of trial and error efforts.
Finally, last week, I thought of coming up with some systematic formula for better and more effective valuation.

Some reading as well as ideas given by forum members, particularly @Antonym were helpful in doing this fast.
http://forum.srilankaequity.com/t29883-list-of-value-shares-with-strong-market-support#176514

Why I am sharing this is;
First, to give out something to the forum as I am also learning a lot from it,
Second, to get views of other so that I can improve on this,
Third; when I try to explain something to others, I understand it better. Wink

Since my approach to this is systematic, I will try to explain it step by step.

Here we go.....

How much a share worth?

Traditionally, the easiest and quickest way I found is to look at one figure in the financial reports of the entity (I mean the company or the group);
the book value or Net Asset Value per Share (I call it NAV).

So my first version of formula is;

Value = NAV

But we cannot fully depend on this number due to few limitations; such as
* NAV shows only the result of past activities and it does not fully represent what is going on and what will happen next
* NAV itself may not be reliable sometimes due to inconsistent practices in accounting (this is my view; arguable), etc

Therefore, I will bring in another factor; how much profit the business generates annually; Earnings per share (EPS).
But there is a problem;
How many years of EPS are we going to consider?
This depends on how we think of the business environment. Here, for the time being I assume the current status can continue for another 5 years.
So, my second formula for,
5 year projection is;

Value = NAV + 5*EPS

But there is an issue. A rupee worth today will not worth a rupee in 5 years time. So we have to use a discount rate. I take the yield rate of the next best investment options as the discount rate;
Average FD rate (Fixed deposit) which is 12% (Pls let me know if you think of a different rate)

So a simple calculation of NPV (Net Present Value) gives us the third formula for,
5 year projection

Value = 0.6*NAV + 3*EPS

Looks familiar?
Well there is another thing investors consider; Dividends.
In fact, there is a saying 'a bird in the hand worth two in the tree' (Something like that).
Actually, it seems, this is one of the most important factors the industry consider.
Let's say the share get an annual dividend of DS.

So, with NPV (Net Preset Value), our next formula for,
5 year projection is;

Value = 0.6*NAV + 3*(EPS-DS) + 4*DS

(; since DS is paid out of EPS, now EPS has become EPS-DS)

Now, there is another situation;
due to many factors, EPS and DS are not constants, they fluctuate and they undergo trends.
In order to accommodate the earning and dividend trend, I would use trend adjusted average EPS and DS (taEPS, taDS)

So our formula for;
5 year projection becomes;

Value = 0.6*NAV + 3*(taEPS-taDS) + 4*taDS

In order to accommodate fluctuations I consider 'standard deviation' of EPS and DS (sd); this lead us to two values Lower value and Higher value (high Value, low Value);

So our formulas for;
5 year projection are;

high Value = 0.6*NAV + 3*(taEPSpsd-taDSpsd) + 4*taDSpsd
low Value = 0.6*NAV + 3*(taEPSmsd-taDSmsd) + 4*taDSmsd

(psd mean plus sd (sd added), msd means minus sd).

So those are my (for the time being) final formulas for 5 year projected value.
But I am a little uncomfortable assigning a higher weight to NPV.
Furthermore, both NAV and EPS are just numbers only so they are not indisputable; the only tangible and indisputable entity here is DS; so I prefer it getting a higher weight.

Therefore, I consider other time frame projections and arrive at the formulas for;

10 year projection;

high Value = 0.3*NAV + 3*(taEPSpsd-taDSpsd) + 6*taDSpsd
low Value = 0.3*NAV + 3*(taEPSmsd-taDSmsd) + 6*taDSmsd

These are my selected formulas for the time being;
By applying to some sample shares, they showed some meaningful results.

Will come up few actual results later......(Still trying to find EPS and DS from quarterly reports; if somebody already have them (numbers copied in a spread sheet) pls share with me)

Pls let me know if you feel if this approach look sensible.

2My Share Valuation Formula Empty Re: My Share Valuation Formula Sat Jul 20, 2013 11:45 am

traderathome

traderathome
Senior Vice President - Equity Analytics
Senior Vice President - Equity Analytics
@hunter wrote:
So my first version of formula is;

Therefore, I will bring in another factor; how much profit the business generates annually; Earnings per share (EPS).
But there is a problem;
How many years of EPS are we going to consider?
This depends on how we think of the business environment. Here, for the time being I assume the current status can continue for another 5 years.
So, my second formula for,
5 year projection is;

Value = NAV + 5*EPS

Thanks hunter for coming up with this formula. i am not an einstein to do these math.but i have a small suggestion regarding the EPS.
what if you consider to enter the future growth of EPS as an option to assuming past 5years EPS on discounted rate.
so users will have 2 options either to calculate on past performance or expected future growth.

Just my opinion.

TAH

3My Share Valuation Formula Empty Re: My Share Valuation Formula Sat Jul 20, 2013 12:06 pm

Redbulls

Redbulls
Director - Equity Analytics
Director - Equity Analytics
Thanks mate for the formula.
The following link may give more exposure.
http://www.gurufocus.com/news/171624/methods-for-arriving-at-the-fair-value-of-companies

(http://forum.srilankaequity.com/t22383-the-graham-number#135285)

4My Share Valuation Formula Empty Re: My Share Valuation Formula Sat Jul 20, 2013 6:38 pm

hunter

hunter
Moderator
Moderator
Thanks Redbulls, the link gave me a better idea of how others do it.
Coincidentally, it seems many others use 12% discount rate and a 10 year period for calculations.  
Thanks go to @sriranga as well for the original post.

TAH, anyone is free to make any changes as required. your suggestion suggests me to come up with a simplified formula. Here it is;

Value = 0.3*NAV + 3*(EPS-DS) + 6*DS
OR
Value = 0.3*NAV + 3*(EPS) + 3*DS

NAV - Net asset value per share
EPS-
DS - (Normalized) average annual dividends per share;

(Normalized mean if there has been changes in number of total shares after the dividends, we need to adjust the value accordingly)

5My Share Valuation Formula Empty Re: My Share Valuation Formula Sat Jul 20, 2013 7:26 pm

Redbulls

Redbulls
Director - Equity Analytics
Director - Equity Analytics
Thanks mate for the updates.
Try this link also.
http://forum.srilankaequity.com/t23024-net-net-working-capital-value-investing?highlight=working

6My Share Valuation Formula Empty Re: My Share Valuation Formula Sun Jul 21, 2013 12:33 pm

hunter

hunter
Moderator
Moderator
I found 7 year projection gives a more optimized calculation;

here is the actual combination I arrived at; For simplicity I omitted the 'growth' component and variance.

7 Year Projection Eq : 0.41*NAV + 3.25*(EPS-DS) + 4.93*DS

Approximately we can take,

Value = 0.4*NAV + 4*(EPS-DS) + 5*DS


(; DS - Average Dividends per share)

7My Share Valuation Formula Empty Re: My Share Valuation Formula Sun Jul 21, 2013 6:09 pm

pathfinder

pathfinder
Senior Manager - Equity Analytics
Senior Manager - Equity Analytics
Good work Hunter keep it up!

8My Share Valuation Formula Empty Re: My Share Valuation Formula Wed Jul 24, 2013 1:27 pm

yaka

yaka
Manager - Equity Analytics
Manager - Equity Analytics
very good post these are the types post should be in this forum not 'that share will go up' 'this share will go down' types.
nywy i have question should we take current year NAV or average figure considering few years figures?
thanx for the valuble post

9My Share Valuation Formula Empty Re: My Share Valuation Formula Wed Jul 24, 2013 2:05 pm

hunter

hunter
Moderator
Moderator
@yaka wrote:very good post these are the types post should be in this forum not 'that share will go up' 'this share will go down' types.
nywy i have question should we take current year NAV or average figure considering few years figures?
thanx for the valuble post

Smile Thanks.
I would take the average of past couple of years. The idea is to assume the same trend will continue for the next few years.

10My Share Valuation Formula Empty Re: My Share Valuation Formula Wed Jul 24, 2013 2:17 pm

rainmaker


Assistant Vice President - Equity Analytics
Assistant Vice President - Equity Analytics
Careful now....

Some industries are low NAV high EPS

Some industries are high NAV low EPS

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