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FINANCIAL CHRONICLE™ » FINANCIAL CHRONICLE™ » TAFL & GRAN

TAFL & GRAN

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21TAFL & GRAN - Page 2 Empty Re: TAFL & GRAN Sun Nov 02, 2014 9:12 pm

kassachandi


Assistant Vice President - Equity Analytics
Assistant Vice President - Equity Analytics
BFL is far better than gran and tafl

22TAFL & GRAN - Page 2 Empty Re: TAFL & GRAN Fri May 22, 2015 12:51 pm

VALUEPICK


Expert
Expert
@VALUEPICK wrote:"TAFL is one of the stocks which maintain uptrend along with broader market. If market conditions become weak this stock too will become weak in the short run.
It is true that TAFL is confident of their growth. They have better production planning and efficient cost control systems now. This quarter definitely they should make good profits when compare with corresponding last year. It is not the question about looking for one quarter profit and share prices. We should find answer to the following questions?  How are they are going to develop their business in the mid and long term. Are they going to expand their export market further? Are they going to benefit from lower grain prices in the coming quarter and years? Are they going to have bigger market share in the future? How are they going to cope up with increased demand for poultry products from hotels in the coming years? Are they have plan to expand their businesses? They had good earnings even during weak business environment. Therefore they will make more profits in a favourable business environment. Remember current rain will increase grain harvest in the coming YALA season. Global grain prices are going to fall further and Corn has entered into bear market now. Even soya bean prices are falling rapidly now. I believe they will have favourable business environment in the coming quarters and years. Even in the current year it is going to have record tourist numbers. If we can find that this company is going to become fast grower then we will have some great opportunities. Finally when TAFL expand GRAN too will benefit.

http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-07-03/corn-nears-bear-market-on-outlook-for-biggest-ever-u-s-harvest.html
corn Futures Enter Bear Market on Rising U.S. Stockpiles

http://in.reuters.com/article/2014/07/05/nagpur-soya-idINL4N0PG03Z20140705

Nagpur Soybean, Soyoil, Soymeal Open-July 5

http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-06-30/corn-heads-for-biggest-drop-since-august-on-bigger-supply.html

Corn Futures Post Biggest Drop in Year as Soybeans Plunge"


It is time to study great opportunity in poultry group in Sri-Lanka.

Good luck!


23TAFL & GRAN - Page 2 Empty Re: TAFL & GRAN Sat May 23, 2015 4:45 pm

stockback


Senior Vice President - Equity Analytics
Senior Vice President - Equity Analytics
any prediction about BFL Financials

24TAFL & GRAN - Page 2 Empty Re: TAFL & GRAN Sat May 23, 2015 11:04 pm

Teller


Moderator
Moderator
BFL Financials will be good but profit margin will not be much like 2009-11, how ever dont forget that 14,000 new poultry farmers in the market after war ending from 2009. Divi neguma and some funds granted to develop this industry all over the island including North,North East ,specially.

25TAFL & GRAN - Page 2 Empty Re: TAFL & GRAN Tue Jun 02, 2015 3:28 pm

VALUEPICK


Expert
Expert
BFL also has announced surprised quarterly EPS closer to 6. Poultry industry has recovered strongly. On top of that they declared attractive dividend as well. Globally egg prices are soaring due to short supply. According to global industry analysts there could be huge shortage in poultry meat and Eggs in 2016 and 2017 due to new development in the global poultry world. Egg prices have hit a record high. Global egg and poultry supply will go down further. There are great demand for egg and other poultry products globally. I believe poultry group should produce above average results in the coming quarters due to lower feed cost and strong demand from locally as well as from regional countries. Global protein demand will increase in the coming years. Poultry will show the biggest increase in demand, followed by eggs, with seafood and beef having the lowest increase in demand.
 
Both TAFL and BFL will be become very attractive not only on the basis of forward P/E ratio but also on the basis of other ratios such as peg ratio and ROE. There are listed golden eggs globally. TAFL could become golden egg in the Sri-Lankan market due to strong outlook locally as well as internationally. Higher earnings for TAFL mean higher earnings for GRAN as well.

26TAFL & GRAN - Page 2 Empty Re: TAFL & GRAN Tue Jun 02, 2015 8:02 pm

EPS

EPS
Expert
Expert
By looking TAFL and GRAN first quarter financials we can keep hopes for their future.
I like to see how TAFL continuo their trend in ongoing and comming quarters.

27TAFL & GRAN - Page 2 Empty Re: TAFL & GRAN Wed Jun 03, 2015 12:01 am

VALUEPICK

VALUEPICK
Expert
Expert
@EPS wrote:By looking TAFL and GRAN first quarter financials we can keep hopes for their future.
I like to see how TAFL continuo their trend in ongoing and comming quarters.
Even TAFL maintained quarterly earnings between 2-3 during previous eight quarters. In this quarter they produced EPS over 3. It is s kind of great value stock with growth potential. We are seeing strong outlook for poultry group.

28TAFL & GRAN - Page 2 Empty Re: TAFL & GRAN Wed Jun 03, 2015 12:14 am

Quibit


Senior Vice President - Equity Analytics
Senior Vice President - Equity Analytics
Poultry farming is the raising of domesticated birds such as chickens, ducks, turkeys and geese, for the purpose of farming meat or eggs for food. Poultry are farmed in great numbers with chickens being the most numerous. More than 50 billion chickens are raised annually as a source of food, for both their meat and their eggs. Chickens raised for eggs are usually called layers while chickens raised for meat are often called broilers. In the US, the national organization overseeing poultry production is the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In the UK, the national organization is the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs .

Contents


  • 1 Intensive and alternative poultry farming
  • 2 Egg-laying chickens - husbandry systems

    • 2.1 Free-range

      • 2.1.1 Organic


    • 2.2 Yarding
    • 2.3 Battery cage
    • 2.4 Furnished cage


  • 3 Meat-producing chickens - husbandry systems

    • 3.1 Indoor broilers

      • 3.1.1 Issues with indoor husbandry
      • 3.1.2 Indoor with higher welfare


    • 3.2 Free-range broilers
    • 3.3 Organic broilers


  • 4 Issues with poultry farming

    • 4.1 Humane treatment
    • 4.2 Beak trimming
    • 4.3 Antibiotics
    • 4.4 Arsenic
    • 4.5 Growth hormones
    • 4.6 E. coli
    • 4.7 Avian influenza
    • 4.8 Efficiency
    • 4.9 Economic factors


  • 5 World chicken population
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References


Intensive and alternative poultry farming


According to the World Watch Institute, 74 percent of the world's poultry meat, and 68 percent of eggs are produced in ways that are described as 'intensive'.[2]One alternative to intensive poultry farming is free-range farming using lower stocking densities. all seasons at a lower cost than free-range production.[citation needed] Poultry producers routinely use nationally approved medications, such as antibiotics, in feed or drinking water, to treat disease or to prevent disease outbreaks. Some FDA-approved medications are also approved for improved feed utilization.


Egg-laying chickens - husbandry systems


Commercial hens usually begin laying eggs at 16–20 weeks of age, although production gradually declines soon after from approximately 25 weeks of age.This means that in many countries, by approximately 72 weeks of age, flocks are considered economically unviable and are slaughtered after approximately 12 months of egg production, although chickens will naturally live for 6 or more years. In some countries, hens are force moulted to re-invigorate egg-laying.
Environmental conditions are often automatically controlled in egg-laying systems. For example, the duration of the light phase is initially increased to prompt the beginning of egg-laying at 16–20 weeks of age and then mimics summer daylength which stimulates the hens to continue laying eggs all year round; normally, egg production occurs only in the warmer months. Some commercial breeds of hen can produce over 300 eggs a year.


Free-range

TAFL & GRAN - Page 2 250px-Free_Range_Hens_-_geograph.org.uk_-_342791


Commercial free range hens

TAFL & GRAN - Page 2 250px-Freerangechickens


Free range chickens being fed outdoors

Main article: Free range
Free-range poultry farming allows chickens to roam freely for a period of the day, although they are usually confined in sheds at night to protect them from predators or kept indoors if the weather is particularly bad. In the UK, the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) states that a free-range chicken must have day-time access to open-air runs during at least half of its life. Unlike in the United States, this definition also applies to free-range egg laying hens. The European Union regulates marketing standards for egg farming which specifies a minimum condition for free-range eggs that "hens have continuous daytime access to open-air runs, except in the case of temporary restrictions imposed by veterinary authorities". The RSPCA "Welfare standards for laying hens and pullets" indicates that the stocking rate must not exceed 1,000 birds per hectare (10 m2 per hen) of range available and a minimum area of overhead shade/shelter of 8 m2 per 1,000 hens must be provided.


Free-range farming of egg-laying hens is increasing its share of the market. Defra figures indicate that 45% of eggs produced in the UK throughout 2010 were free-range, 5% were produced in barn systems and 50% from cages. This compares with 41% being free-range in 2009.


Suitable land requires adequate drainage to minimise worms and coccidial oocysts, suitable protection from prevailing winds, good ventilation, access and protection from predators. Excess heat, cold or damp can have a harmful effect on the animals and their productivity. Free-range farmers have less control than farmers using cages in what food their chickens eat, which can lead to unreliable productivity, though supplementary feeding reduces this uncertainty.


In some farms, the manure from free-range poultry can be used to benefit crops.
The benefits of free-range poultry farming for laying hens include opportunities for natural behaviours such as pecking, scratching, foraging and exercise outdoors.
Both intensive and free-range farming have animal welfare concerns. Cannibalism, feather pecking and vent pecking can be common, prompting some farmers to use beak trimming as a preventative measure, although reducing stocking rates would eliminate these problems.Diseases can be common and the animals are vulnerable to predators. Barn systems have been found to have the worst bird welfare. In South-East Asia, a lack of disease control in free range farming has been associated with outbreaks of Avian influenza.


Organic

In organic egg-laying systems, chickens are also free-range. Organic systems are based upon restrictions on the routine use of synthetic yolk colourants, in-feed or in-water medications, other food additives and synthetic amino acids, and a lower stocking density and smaller group sizes.[citation needed] The Soil Association standards used to certify organic flocks in the UK, indicate a maximum outdoors stocking density of 1,000 birds per hectare and a maximum of 2,000 hens in each poultry house. In the UK, organic laying hens are not routinely beak-trimmed.


Yarding

Main article: Yarding
While often confused with free-range farming, yarding is actually a separate method of poultry culture by which chickens and cows are raised together. The distinction is that free-range poultry are either totally unfenced, or the fence is so distant that it has little influence on their freedom of movement. Yarding is common technique used by small farms in the Northeastern US. The birds are released daily from hutches or coops. The hens usually lay eggs either on the floor of the coop or in baskets if provided by the farmer. This husbandry technique can be complicated if used with roosters, mostly because of aggressive behaviour.


Battery cage

Main article: Battery cage


Battery cages for layer hens
TAFL & GRAN - Page 2 220px-Battery_hens_-Bastos%2C_Sao_Paulo%2C_Brazil-31March2007

Bank of cages

TAFL & GRAN - Page 2 200px-BatteryChicken5DaysOutOfCage

Chicken 5 days out of a battery cage. Note the damaged feathers typical of hens in this (and other) housing systems.[10]


The majority of hens in many countries are reared in battery cages, although the European Union Council Directive 1999/74/EC has banned the conventional battery cage in EU states from January 2012. These are small cages, usually made of metal in modern systems, housing 3 to 8 hens. The walls are made of either solid metal or mesh, and the floor is sloped wire mesh to allow the faeces to drop through and eggs to roll onto an egg-collecting conveyor belt. Water is usually provided by overhead nipple systems, and food in a trough along the front of the cage replenished at regular intervals by a mechanical chain.


The cages are arranged in long rows as multiple tiers, often with cages back-to-back (hence the term 'battery cage'). Within a single shed, there may be several floors containing battery cages meaning that a single shed may contain many tens of thousands of hens. Light intensity is often kept low (e.g. 10 lux) to reduce feather pecking and vent pecking. Benefits of battery cages include easier care for the birds, floor eggs which are expensive to collect are eliminated, eggs are cleaner, capture at the end of lay is expedited, generally less feed is required to produce eggs, broodiness is eliminated, more hens may be housed in a given house floor space, internal parasites are more easily treated, and labor requirements are generally much reduced.


In farms using cages for egg production, there are more birds per unit area; this allows for greater productivity and lower food costs. Floor space ranges upwards from 300 cm2 per hen. EU standards in 2003 called for at least 550 cm2 per hen. In the US, the current recommendation by the United Egg Producers is 67 to 86 in2 (430 to 560 cm2) per bird. The space available to battery hens has often been described as less than the size of a piece of A4 paper. Animal welfare scientists have been critical of battery cages because they do not provide hens with sufficient space to stand, walk, flap their wings, perch, or make a nest, and it is widely considered that hens suffer through boredom and frustration through being unable to perform these behaviours. This can lead to a wide range of abnormal behaviours, some of which are injurious to the hens or their cagemates.

Furnished cage

Main article: Furnished cages
In 1999, the European Union Council Directive 1999/74/EC banned conventional battery cages for laying hens throughout the European Union from January 1, 2012; they were banned previously in other countries including Switzerland. In response to these bans, development of prototype commercial furnished cage systems began in the 1980s. Furnished cages, sometimes called 'enriched' or 'modified' cages, are cages for egg laying hens which have been designed to overcome some of the welfare concerns of battery cages whilst retaining their economic and husbandry advantages, and also provide some of the welfare advantages of non-cage systems. Many design features of furnished cages have been incorporated because research in animal welfare science has shown them to be of benefit to the hens. In the UK, the Defra "Code for the Welfare of Laying Hens" states furnished cages should provide at least 750 cm2 of cage area per hen, 600 cm2 of which should be usable; the height of the cage other than that above the usable area should be at least 20 cm at every point and no cage should have a total area that is less than 2000 cm2. In addition, furnished cages should provide a nest, litter such that pecking and scratching are possible, appropriate perches allowing at least 15 cm per hen, a claw-shortening device, and a feed trough which may be used without restriction providing 12 cm per hen.


Modern egg laying breeds often suffer from osteoporosis which results in the chicken's skeletal system being weakened. During egg production, large amounts of calcium are transferred from bones to create egg-shell. Although dietary calcium levels are adequate, absorption of dietary calcium is not always sufficient, given the intensity of production, to fully replenish bone calcium. This can lead to increases in bone breakages, particularly when the hens are being removed from cages at the end of laying.


Meat-producing chickens - husbandry systems

Main article: Broiler industry


TAFL & GRAN - Page 2 220px-Florida_chicken_house


Broilers in a production house

Indoor broilers

Meat chickens, commonly called broilers, are floor-raised on litter such as wood shavings, peanut shells, and rice hulls, indoors in climate-controlled housing. Under modern farming methods, meat chickens reared indoors reach slaughter weight at 5 to 9 weeks of age. The first week of chickens life they can grow 300 percent of their body size, a nine-week-old chicken can average over 9 pounds in body weight. At nine weeks a hen will average around 7 pounds and a rooster will weigh around 12 pounds, having a nine-pound average.
Broilers are not raised in cages. They are raised in large, open structures known as grow out houses. A farmer receives the birds from the hatchery at one day old. A grow out consist of 5 to 9 weeks according on how big the kill plant wants the chickens to be. These houses are equipped with mechanical systems to deliver feed and water to the birds. They have ventilation systems and heaters that function as needed. The floor of the house is covered with bedding material consisting of wood chips, rice hulls, or peanut shells. In some cases they can be grown over dry litter or compost. Because dry bedding helps maintain flock health, most growout houses have enclosed watering systems (“nipple drinkers”) which reduce spillage.


Keeping birds inside a house protects them from predators such as hawks and foxes. Some houses are equipped with curtain walls, which can be rolled up in good weather to admit natural light and fresh air. Most growout houses built in recent years feature “tunnel ventilation,” in which a bank of fans draws fresh air through the house.


Traditionally, a flock of broilers consist of about 20,000 birds in a growout house that measures 400/500 feet long and 40/50 feet wide, thus providing about eight-tenths of a square foot per bird. The Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST) states that the minimum space is one-half square foot per bird. More modern houses are often larger and contain more birds, but the floor space allotment still meets the needs of the birds. The larger the bird is grown the fewer chickens are put in each house, to give the bigger bird more space per square foot.


Because broilers are relatively young and have not reached sexual maturity, they exhibit very little aggressive conduct.


Chicken feed consists primarily of corn and soybean meal with the addition of essential vitamins and minerals. No hormones or steroids are allowed in raising chickens.


Issues with indoor husbandry

In intensive broiler sheds, the air can become highly polluted with ammonia from the droppings. In this case a farmer must run more fans to bring in more clean fresh air. If not this can damage the chickens’ eyes and respiratory systems and can cause painful burns on their legs (called hock burns) and blisters on their feet.


Broilers bred for fast growth have a high rate of leg deformities because the large breast muscles causes distortions of the developing legs and pelvis, and the birds cannot support their increased body weight. In cases where the chickens become crippled and can't walk farmers have to go in and pull them out. Because they cannot move easily, the chickens are not able to adjust their environment to avoid heat, cold or dirt as they would in natural conditions. The added weight and overcrowding also puts a strain on their hearts and lungs and Ascites can develop.
 
In the UK, up to 19 million broilers die in their sheds from heart failure each year. In the case of no ventilation due to power failure during a heat wave 20,000 chicken can die in a short period of time. In a good grow out a farmer should sell between 92 to 96 percent of their flock. With a 1.80 to a 2.0 feed conversion ratio. After the marking of birds the farmer must clean out and repair for another flock. A farmer should average 4 to 5 grow outs a year.


Indoor with higher welfare

Chickens are kept indoors but with more space (around 12 to 14 birds per square metre). They have a richer environment for example with natural light or straw bales that encourage foraging and perching. The chickens grow more slowly and live for up to two weeks longer than intensively farmed birds.The benefits of higher welfare indoor systems are the reduced growth rate, less crowding and more opportunities for natural behaviour.


Free-range broilers


TAFL & GRAN - Page 2 220px-Turkeys_on_pasture_at_an_organic_farm


Turkeys on pasture at an organic farm

Free-range broilers are reared under similar conditions to free-range egg laying hens. The breeds grow more slowly than those used for indoor rearing and usually reach slaughter weight at approximately 8 weeks of age. In the EU, each chicken must have one square metre of outdoor space. The benefits of free-range poultry farming include opportunities for natural behaviours such as pecking, scratching, foraging and exercise outdoors. Because they grow slower and have opportunities for exercise, free-range broilers often have better leg and heart health.


Organic broilers

Organic broiler chickens are reared under similar conditions to free-range broilers but with restrictions on the routine use of in-feed or in-water medications, other food additives and synthetic amino acids. The breeds used are slower growing, more traditional breeds and typically reach slaughter weight at around 12 weeks of age. They have a larger space allowance outside (at least 2 square metres and sometimes up to 10 square metres per bird).The Soil Association standards indicate a maximum outdoors stocking density of 2,500 birds per hectare and a maximum of 1,000 broilers per poultry house.


Issues with poultry farming


Humane treatment


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Battery cages

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Chickens transported in a truck.

Animal welfare groups have frequently criticized the poultry industry for engaging in practices which they believe to be inhumane. Many animal rights advocates object to killing chickens for food, the "factory farm conditions" under which they are raised, methods of transport, and slaughter. Compassion Over Killing and other groups have repeatedly conducted undercover investigations at chicken farms and slaughterhouses which they allege confirm their claims of cruelty.


Conditions in chicken farms may be unsanitary, allowing the proliferation of diseases such as salmonella, E. coli and campylobacter. Chickens may be raised in very low light intensities, sometimes total darkness, to reduce injurious pecking. Concerns have been raised that companies growing single varieties of birds for eggs or meat are increasing their susceptibility to disease. Rough handling, crowded transport during various weather conditions and the failure of existing stunning systems to render the birds unconscious before slaughter, have also been cited as welfare concerns.


A common practice among hatcheries for egg-laying hens is the culling of newly hatched male chicks since they do not lay eggs and do not grow fast enough to be profitable for meat.


Beak trimming

Main article: Debeaking
Laying hens are routinely beak-trimmed at 1 day of age to reduce the damaging effects of aggression, feather peckingand cannibalism. Scientific studies (see below) have shown that beak trimming is likely to cause both acute and chronic pain.


The beak is a complex, functional organ with an extensive nervous supply including nociceptors that sense pain and noxious stimuli. These would almost certainly be stimulated during beak trimming, indicating strongly that acute pain would be experienced. Behavioural evidence of pain after beak trimming in layer hen chicks has been based on the observed reduction in pecking behavior, reduced activity and social behavior, and increased sleep duration. Severe beak trimming, or beak trimming birds at an older age, may cause chronic pain. Following beak trimming of older or adult hens, the nociceptors in the beak stump show abnormal patterns of neural discharge, which indicate acute pain.


Neuromas, tangled masses of swollen regenerating axon sprouts, are found in the healed stumps of birds beak trimmed at 5 weeks of age or older and in severely beak trimmed birds. Neuromas have been associated with phantom pain in human amputees and have therefore been linked to chronic pain in beak trimmed birds. If beak trimming is severe because of improper procedure or done in older birds, the neuromas will persist which suggests that beak trimmed older birds experience chronic pain, although this has been debated.


Beak-trimmed chicks will initially peck less than non-trimmed chickens, which animal behavioralist Temple Grandin attributes to guarding against pain. The animal rights activist, Peter Singer, claims this procedure is bad because beaks are sensitive, and the usual practice of trimming them without anaesthesia is considered inhumane by some. Some within the chicken industry claim that beak-trimming is not painful whereas others argue that the procedure causes chronic pain and discomfort, and decreases the ability to eat or drink.


Antibiotics

Antibiotics have been used in poultry farming in large quantities since the 1940s. Around this time, it was found that the by-products of antibiotic production, fed because the antibiotic-producing mold had a high level of vitamin B12, produced better growth than could be accounted for by the vitamin B12 alone. Eventually it was discovered that the trace amounts of antibiotics remaining in the byproducts accounted for this growth.


The mechanism is apparently the adjustment of intestinal flora, favoring "good" bacteria while suppressing "bad" bacteria that provoke inflammation of the gut mucosa. So, the goal of antibiotics as a growth promoter is the same as for probiotics. Because the antibiotics used are not absorbed by the gut, they do not put antibiotics into the meat or eggs.


Antibiotics are used routinely in poultry for this reason, and also to prevent and treat disease. Many contend that this puts humans at risk as bacterial strains develop stronger and stronger resistances.


A proposed bill in the United States Congress would make the use of antibiotics in animal feed legal only for therapeutic (rather than preventative) use, but it has not been passed. However, this may present the risk of slaughtered chickens harboring pathogenic bacteria and passing them on to humans that consume them.


In October 2000, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) discovered that two antibiotics were no longer effective in treating diseases found in factory-farmed chickens; one antibiotic was swiftly pulled from the market, but the other, Baytril, was not. Bayer, the company which produced it, contested the claim and as a result, Baytril remained in use until July 2005.


To prevent any residues of antibiotics in chicken meat, any given antibiotics are required to have a "withdrawal" period before they can be slaughtered. Samples of poultry at slaughter are randomly tested by the FSIS, and shows a very low percentage of residue violations 


Arsenic

Poultry feed can also include roxarsone or nitarsone, arsenical antimicrobial drugs that also promote growth. Roxarsone was used as a broiler starter by about 70% of the broiler growers between 1995 to 2000.[49] The drugs have generated controversy because it contains arsenic, which is highly toxic to humans. This arsenic could be transmitted through run-off from the poultry yards. A 2004 study by the U.S. magazine Consumer Reports reported "no detectable arsenic in our samples of muscle" but found "A few of our chicken-liver samples has an amount that according to EPA standards could cause neurological problems in a child who ate 2 ounces of cooked liver per week or in an adult who ate 5.5 ounces per week." The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), however, is the organization responsible for the regulation of foods in America, and all samples tested were "far less than the... amount allowed in a food product."


TAFL & GRAN - Page 2 140px-Roxarsone


Roxarsone, a controversial arsenic compound used as a nutritional supplement for chickens.

Growth hormones

Hormone use in poultry production is illegal in the United States. Similarly, no chicken meat for sale in Australia is fed hormones. Several scientific studies have documented the fact that chickens grow rapidly because they are bred to do so, not because of growth hormones. A small producer of natural and organic chickens confirmed this assumption:


"Using hormones to boost egg production was a brief fad in the Forties, but was abandoned because it didn't work. Using hormones to produce soft-meated roasters lasted into the Fifties, but the improved growth rates of normal, untreated broilers made the practice irrelevant--the broilers got as big as anyone wanted without chemicals. The only hormone that was ever used in any quantity on poultry (DES) was banned in 1959, and everyone but a few die-hard farmers had given up hormones by then, anyway. Hormones are now illegal in poultry and eggs."

E. coli

According to Consumer Reports, "1.1 million or more Americans [are] sickened each year by undercooked, tainted chicken." A USDAstudy discovered E. coli (Biotype I) in 99% of supermarket chicken, the result of chicken butchering not being a sterile process. However, the same study also shows that the strain of E. coli found was always a non-lethal form, and no chicken had any of the pathenogenic O157:H7 serotype. Many of these chickens, furthermore, had relatively low levels of contamination.


Feces tend to leak from the carcass until the evisceration stage, and the evisceration stage itself gives an opportunity for the interior of the carcass to receive intestinal bacteria. (So does the skin of the carcass, but the skin presents a better barrier to bacteria and reaches higher temperatures during cooking).
 
Before 1950, this was contained largely by not eviscerating the carcass at the time of butchering, deferring this until the time of retail sale or in the home. This gave the intestinal bacteria less opportunity to colonize the edible meat. 


The development of the "ready-to-cook broiler" in the 1950s added convenience while introducing risk, under the assumption that end-to-end refrigeration and thorough cooking would provide adequate protection. E. coli can be killed by proper cooking times, but there is still some risk associated with it, and its near-ubiquity in commercially farmed chicken is troubling to some. Irradiation has been proposed as a means of sterilizing chicken meat after butchering.
Salmonella too can be stressful on poultry production, how it causes disease has been investigated in some detail.


Avian influenza

Main article: Avian influenza
There is also a risk that crowded conditions in chicken farms will allow avian influenza (bird flu) to spread quickly. A United Nations press release states: "Governments, local authorities and international agencies need to take a greatly increased role in combating the role of factory-farming, commerce in live poultry, and wildlife markets which provide ideal conditions for the virus to spread and mutate into a more dangerous form..."


Efficiency

Farming of chickens on an industrial scale relies largely on high protein feeds derived from soyabeans; in the European Union the soybean dominates the protein supply for animal feed, and the poultry industry is the largest consumer of such feed. Two kilograms of grain must be fed to poultry to produce 1 kg of weight gain, much less than that required for pork or beef. However, for every gram of protein consumed, chickens yield only 0.33 g of edible protein.


Economic factors

Changes in commodity prices for poultry feed have a direct effect on the cost of doing business in the poultry industry. For instance, a significant rise in the price of corn in the United States can put significant economic pressure on large industrial chicken farming operations.


World chicken population

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimated that in 2002 there were nearly sixteen billion chickens in the world, counting a total population of 15,853,900,000. The figures from the Global Livestock Production and Health Atlas for 2004 were as follows:

[list="margin-top: 0.3em; margin-right: 0px; margin-left: 3.2em; padding-right: 0px; padding-left: 0px; list-style-image: none; color: rgb(37, 37, 37); font-family: sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 22px;"]
[*]China (3,860,000,000)

[*]United States (1,970,000,000)

[*]Indonesia (1,200,000,000)

[*]Brazil (1,100,000,000)

[*]Pakistan (691,948,000)

[*]India (648,830,000)

[*]Mexico (540,000,000)

[*]Russia (340,000,000)

[*]Japan (286,000,000)

[*]Iran (280,000,000)

[*]Turkey (250,000,000)

[*]Bangladesh (172,630,000)

[*]Nigeria (143,500,000)

[/list]
In 2009 the annual chicken population in factory farms was estimated at 50 billion, with 6 billion raised in the European Union, over 9 billion raised in the United States and more than 7 billion in China.


Courtesy : Wikipedia

29TAFL & GRAN - Page 2 Empty Re: TAFL & GRAN Thu Jun 04, 2015 12:44 am

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Senior Vice President - Equity Analytics
Senior Vice President - Equity Analytics
@Quibit wrote:Poultry farming is the raising of domesticated birds such as chickens, ducks, turkeys and geese, for the purpose of farming meat or eggs for food. Poultry are farmed in great numbers with chickens being the most numerous. More than 50 billion chickens are raised annually as a source of food, for both their meat and their eggs. Chickens raised for eggs are usually called layers while chickens raised for meat are often called broilers. In the US, the national organization overseeing poultry production is the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In the UK, the national organization is the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs .

Contents



  • 1 Intensive and alternative poultry farming
  • 2 Egg-laying chickens - husbandry systems

    • 2.1 Free-range

      • 2.1.1 Organic


    • 2.2 Yarding
    • 2.3 Battery cage
    • 2.4 Furnished cage


  • 3 Meat-producing chickens - husbandry systems

    • 3.1 Indoor broilers

      • 3.1.1 Issues with indoor husbandry
      • 3.1.2 Indoor with higher welfare


    • 3.2 Free-range broilers
    • 3.3 Organic broilers


  • 4 Issues with poultry farming

    • 4.1 Humane treatment
    • 4.2 Beak trimming
    • 4.3 Antibiotics
    • 4.4 Arsenic
    • 4.5 Growth hormones
    • 4.6 E. coli
    • 4.7 Avian influenza
    • 4.8 Efficiency
    • 4.9 Economic factors


  • 5 World chicken population
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References


Intensive and alternative poultry farming




According to the World Watch Institute, 74 percent of the world's poultry meat, and 68 percent of eggs are produced in ways that are described as 'intensive'.[2]One alternative to intensive poultry farming is free-range farming using lower stocking densities. all seasons at a lower cost than free-range production.[citation needed] Poultry producers routinely use nationally approved medications, such as antibiotics, in feed or drinking water, to treat disease or to prevent disease outbreaks. Some FDA-approved medications are also approved for improved feed utilization.


Egg-laying chickens - husbandry systems




Commercial hens usually begin laying eggs at 16–20 weeks of age, although production gradually declines soon after from approximately 25 weeks of age.This means that in many countries, by approximately 72 weeks of age, flocks are considered economically unviable and are slaughtered after approximately 12 months of egg production, although chickens will naturally live for 6 or more years. In some countries, hens are force moulted to re-invigorate egg-laying.
Environmental conditions are often automatically controlled in egg-laying systems. For example, the duration of the light phase is initially increased to prompt the beginning of egg-laying at 16–20 weeks of age and then mimics summer daylength which stimulates the hens to continue laying eggs all year round; normally, egg production occurs only in the warmer months. Some commercial breeds of hen can produce over 300 eggs a year.


Free-range



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Commercial free range hens

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Free range chickens being fed outdoors

Main article: Free range
Free-range poultry farming allows chickens to roam freely for a period of the day, although they are usually confined in sheds at night to protect them from predators or kept indoors if the weather is particularly bad. In the UK, the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) states that a free-range chicken must have day-time access to open-air runs during at least half of its life. Unlike in the United States, this definition also applies to free-range egg laying hens. The European Union regulates marketing standards for egg farming which specifies a minimum condition for free-range eggs that "hens have continuous daytime access to open-air runs, except in the case of temporary restrictions imposed by veterinary authorities". The RSPCA "Welfare standards for laying hens and pullets" indicates that the stocking rate must not exceed 1,000 birds per hectare (10 m2 per hen) of range available and a minimum area of overhead shade/shelter of 8 m2 per 1,000 hens must be provided.


Free-range farming of egg-laying hens is increasing its share of the market. Defra figures indicate that 45% of eggs produced in the UK throughout 2010 were free-range, 5% were produced in barn systems and 50% from cages. This compares with 41% being free-range in 2009.


Suitable land requires adequate drainage to minimise worms and coccidial oocysts, suitable protection from prevailing winds, good ventilation, access and protection from predators. Excess heat, cold or damp can have a harmful effect on the animals and their productivity. Free-range farmers have less control than farmers using cages in what food their chickens eat, which can lead to unreliable productivity, though supplementary feeding reduces this uncertainty.


In some farms, the manure from free-range poultry can be used to benefit crops.
The benefits of free-range poultry farming for laying hens include opportunities for natural behaviours such as pecking, scratching, foraging and exercise outdoors.
Both intensive and free-range farming have animal welfare concerns. Cannibalism, feather pecking and vent pecking can be common, prompting some farmers to use beak trimming as a preventative measure, although reducing stocking rates would eliminate these problems.Diseases can be common and the animals are vulnerable to predators. Barn systems have been found to have the worst bird welfare. In South-East Asia, a lack of disease control in free range farming has been associated with outbreaks of Avian influenza.


Organic



In organic egg-laying systems, chickens are also free-range. Organic systems are based upon restrictions on the routine use of synthetic yolk colourants, in-feed or in-water medications, other food additives and synthetic amino acids, and a lower stocking density and smaller group sizes.[citation needed] The Soil Association standards used to certify organic flocks in the UK, indicate a maximum outdoors stocking density of 1,000 birds per hectare and a maximum of 2,000 hens in each poultry house. In the UK, organic laying hens are not routinely beak-trimmed.


Yarding



Main article: Yarding
While often confused with free-range farming, yarding is actually a separate method of poultry culture by which chickens and cows are raised together. The distinction is that free-range poultry are either totally unfenced, or the fence is so distant that it has little influence on their freedom of movement. Yarding is common technique used by small farms in the Northeastern US. The birds are released daily from hutches or coops. The hens usually lay eggs either on the floor of the coop or in baskets if provided by the farmer. This husbandry technique can be complicated if used with roosters, mostly because of aggressive behaviour.


Battery cage



Main article: Battery cage


Battery cages for layer hens
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Bank of cages

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Chicken 5 days out of a battery cage. Note the damaged feathers typical of hens in this (and other) housing systems.[10]


The majority of hens in many countries are reared in battery cages, although the European Union Council Directive 1999/74/EC has banned the conventional battery cage in EU states from January 2012. These are small cages, usually made of metal in modern systems, housing 3 to 8 hens. The walls are made of either solid metal or mesh, and the floor is sloped wire mesh to allow the faeces to drop through and eggs to roll onto an egg-collecting conveyor belt. Water is usually provided by overhead nipple systems, and food in a trough along the front of the cage replenished at regular intervals by a mechanical chain.


The cages are arranged in long rows as multiple tiers, often with cages back-to-back (hence the term 'battery cage'). Within a single shed, there may be several floors containing battery cages meaning that a single shed may contain many tens of thousands of hens. Light intensity is often kept low (e.g. 10 lux) to reduce feather pecking and vent pecking. Benefits of battery cages include easier care for the birds, floor eggs which are expensive to collect are eliminated, eggs are cleaner, capture at the end of lay is expedited, generally less feed is required to produce eggs, broodiness is eliminated, more hens may be housed in a given house floor space, internal parasites are more easily treated, and labor requirements are generally much reduced.


In farms using cages for egg production, there are more birds per unit area; this allows for greater productivity and lower food costs. Floor space ranges upwards from 300 cm2 per hen. EU standards in 2003 called for at least 550 cm2 per hen. In the US, the current recommendation by the United Egg Producers is 67 to 86 in2 (430 to 560 cm2) per bird. The space available to battery hens has often been described as less than the size of a piece of A4 paper. Animal welfare scientists have been critical of battery cages because they do not provide hens with sufficient space to stand, walk, flap their wings, perch, or make a nest, and it is widely considered that hens suffer through boredom and frustration through being unable to perform these behaviours. This can lead to a wide range of abnormal behaviours, some of which are injurious to the hens or their cagemates.

Furnished cage



Main article: Furnished cages
In 1999, the European Union Council Directive 1999/74/EC banned conventional battery cages for laying hens throughout the European Union from January 1, 2012; they were banned previously in other countries including Switzerland. In response to these bans, development of prototype commercial furnished cage systems began in the 1980s. Furnished cages, sometimes called 'enriched' or 'modified' cages, are cages for egg laying hens which have been designed to overcome some of the welfare concerns of battery cages whilst retaining their economic and husbandry advantages, and also provide some of the welfare advantages of non-cage systems. Many design features of furnished cages have been incorporated because research in animal welfare science has shown them to be of benefit to the hens. In the UK, the Defra "Code for the Welfare of Laying Hens" states furnished cages should provide at least 750 cm2 of cage area per hen, 600 cm2 of which should be usable; the height of the cage other than that above the usable area should be at least 20 cm at every point and no cage should have a total area that is less than 2000 cm2. In addition, furnished cages should provide a nest, litter such that pecking and scratching are possible, appropriate perches allowing at least 15 cm per hen, a claw-shortening device, and a feed trough which may be used without restriction providing 12 cm per hen.


Modern egg laying breeds often suffer from osteoporosis which results in the chicken's skeletal system being weakened. During egg production, large amounts of calcium are transferred from bones to create egg-shell. Although dietary calcium levels are adequate, absorption of dietary calcium is not always sufficient, given the intensity of production, to fully replenish bone calcium. This can lead to increases in bone breakages, particularly when the hens are being removed from cages at the end of laying.


Meat-producing chickens - husbandry systems



Main article: Broiler industry


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Broilers in a production house

Indoor broilers



Meat chickens, commonly called broilers, are floor-raised on litter such as wood shavings, peanut shells, and rice hulls, indoors in climate-controlled housing. Under modern farming methods, meat chickens reared indoors reach slaughter weight at 5 to 9 weeks of age. The first week of chickens life they can grow 300 percent of their body size, a nine-week-old chicken can average over 9 pounds in body weight. At nine weeks a hen will average around 7 pounds and a rooster will weigh around 12 pounds, having a nine-pound average.
Broilers are not raised in cages. They are raised in large, open structures known as grow out houses. A farmer receives the birds from the hatchery at one day old. A grow out consist of 5 to 9 weeks according on how big the kill plant wants the chickens to be. These houses are equipped with mechanical systems to deliver feed and water to the birds. They have ventilation systems and heaters that function as needed. The floor of the house is covered with bedding material consisting of wood chips, rice hulls, or peanut shells. In some cases they can be grown over dry litter or compost. Because dry bedding helps maintain flock health, most growout houses have enclosed watering systems (“nipple drinkers”) which reduce spillage.


Keeping birds inside a house protects them from predators such as hawks and foxes. Some houses are equipped with curtain walls, which can be rolled up in good weather to admit natural light and fresh air. Most growout houses built in recent years feature “tunnel ventilation,” in which a bank of fans draws fresh air through the house.


Traditionally, a flock of broilers consist of about 20,000 birds in a growout house that measures 400/500 feet long and 40/50 feet wide, thus providing about eight-tenths of a square foot per bird. The Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST) states that the minimum space is one-half square foot per bird. More modern houses are often larger and contain more birds, but the floor space allotment still meets the needs of the birds. The larger the bird is grown the fewer chickens are put in each house, to give the bigger bird more space per square foot.


Because broilers are relatively young and have not reached sexual maturity, they exhibit very little aggressive conduct.


Chicken feed consists primarily of corn and soybean meal with the addition of essential vitamins and minerals. No hormones or steroids are allowed in raising chickens.


Issues with indoor husbandry



In intensive broiler sheds, the air can become highly polluted with ammonia from the droppings. In this case a farmer must run more fans to bring in more clean fresh air. If not this can damage the chickens’ eyes and respiratory systems and can cause painful burns on their legs (called hock burns) and blisters on their feet.


Broilers bred for fast growth have a high rate of leg deformities because the large breast muscles causes distortions of the developing legs and pelvis, and the birds cannot support their increased body weight. In cases where the chickens become crippled and can't walk farmers have to go in and pull them out. Because they cannot move easily, the chickens are not able to adjust their environment to avoid heat, cold or dirt as they would in natural conditions. The added weight and overcrowding also puts a strain on their hearts and lungs and Ascites can develop.
 
In the UK, up to 19 million broilers die in their sheds from heart failure each year. In the case of no ventilation due to power failure during a heat wave 20,000 chicken can die in a short period of time. In a good grow out a farmer should sell between 92 to 96 percent of their flock. With a 1.80 to a 2.0 feed conversion ratio. After the marking of birds the farmer must clean out and repair for another flock. A farmer should average 4 to 5 grow outs a year.


Indoor with higher welfare



Chickens are kept indoors but with more space (around 12 to 14 birds per square metre). They have a richer environment for example with natural light or straw bales that encourage foraging and perching. The chickens grow more slowly and live for up to two weeks longer than intensively farmed birds.The benefits of higher welfare indoor systems are the reduced growth rate, less crowding and more opportunities for natural behaviour.


Free-range broilers




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Turkeys on pasture at an organic farm

Free-range broilers are reared under similar conditions to free-range egg laying hens. The breeds grow more slowly than those used for indoor rearing and usually reach slaughter weight at approximately 8 weeks of age. In the EU, each chicken must have one square metre of outdoor space. The benefits of free-range poultry farming include opportunities for natural behaviours such as pecking, scratching, foraging and exercise outdoors. Because they grow slower and have opportunities for exercise, free-range broilers often have better leg and heart health.


Organic broilers



Organic broiler chickens are reared under similar conditions to free-range broilers but with restrictions on the routine use of in-feed or in-water medications, other food additives and synthetic amino acids. The breeds used are slower growing, more traditional breeds and typically reach slaughter weight at around 12 weeks of age. They have a larger space allowance outside (at least 2 square metres and sometimes up to 10 square metres per bird).The Soil Association standards indicate a maximum outdoors stocking density of 2,500 birds per hectare and a maximum of 1,000 broilers per poultry house.


Issues with poultry farming




Humane treatment




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Battery cages

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Chickens transported in a truck.

Animal welfare groups have frequently criticized the poultry industry for engaging in practices which they believe to be inhumane. Many animal rights advocates object to killing chickens for food, the "factory farm conditions" under which they are raised, methods of transport, and slaughter. Compassion Over Killing and other groups have repeatedly conducted undercover investigations at chicken farms and slaughterhouses which they allege confirm their claims of cruelty.


Conditions in chicken farms may be unsanitary, allowing the proliferation of diseases such as salmonella, E. coli and campylobacter. Chickens may be raised in very low light intensities, sometimes total darkness, to reduce injurious pecking. Concerns have been raised that companies growing single varieties of birds for eggs or meat are increasing their susceptibility to disease. Rough handling, crowded transport during various weather conditions and the failure of existing stunning systems to render the birds unconscious before slaughter, have also been cited as welfare concerns.


A common practice among hatcheries for egg-laying hens is the culling of newly hatched male chicks since they do not lay eggs and do not grow fast enough to be profitable for meat.


Beak trimming



Main article: Debeaking
Laying hens are routinely beak-trimmed at 1 day of age to reduce the damaging effects of aggression, feather peckingand cannibalism. Scientific studies (see below) have shown that beak trimming is likely to cause both acute and chronic pain.


The beak is a complex, functional organ with an extensive nervous supply including nociceptors that sense pain and noxious stimuli. These would almost certainly be stimulated during beak trimming, indicating strongly that acute pain would be experienced. Behavioural evidence of pain after beak trimming in layer hen chicks has been based on the observed reduction in pecking behavior, reduced activity and social behavior, and increased sleep duration. Severe beak trimming, or beak trimming birds at an older age, may cause chronic pain. Following beak trimming of older or adult hens, the nociceptors in the beak stump show abnormal patterns of neural discharge, which indicate acute pain.


Neuromas, tangled masses of swollen regenerating axon sprouts, are found in the healed stumps of birds beak trimmed at 5 weeks of age or older and in severely beak trimmed birds. Neuromas have been associated with phantom pain in human amputees and have therefore been linked to chronic pain in beak trimmed birds. If beak trimming is severe because of improper procedure or done in older birds, the neuromas will persist which suggests that beak trimmed older birds experience chronic pain, although this has been debated.


Beak-trimmed chicks will initially peck less than non-trimmed chickens, which animal behavioralist Temple Grandin attributes to guarding against pain. The animal rights activist, Peter Singer, claims this procedure is bad because beaks are sensitive, and the usual practice of trimming them without anaesthesia is considered inhumane by some. Some within the chicken industry claim that beak-trimming is not painful whereas others argue that the procedure causes chronic pain and discomfort, and decreases the ability to eat or drink.


Antibiotics



Antibiotics have been used in poultry farming in large quantities since the 1940s. Around this time, it was found that the by-products of antibiotic production, fed because the antibiotic-producing mold had a high level of vitamin B12, produced better growth than could be accounted for by the vitamin B12 alone. Eventually it was discovered that the trace amounts of antibiotics remaining in the byproducts accounted for this growth.


The mechanism is apparently the adjustment of intestinal flora, favoring "good" bacteria while suppressing "bad" bacteria that provoke inflammation of the gut mucosa. So, the goal of antibiotics as a growth promoter is the same as for probiotics. Because the antibiotics used are not absorbed by the gut, they do not put antibiotics into the meat or eggs.


Antibiotics are used routinely in poultry for this reason, and also to prevent and treat disease. Many contend that this puts humans at risk as bacterial strains develop stronger and stronger resistances.


A proposed bill in the United States Congress would make the use of antibiotics in animal feed legal only for therapeutic (rather than preventative) use, but it has not been passed. However, this may present the risk of slaughtered chickens harboring pathogenic bacteria and passing them on to humans that consume them.


In October 2000, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) discovered that two antibiotics were no longer effective in treating diseases found in factory-farmed chickens; one antibiotic was swiftly pulled from the market, but the other, Baytril, was not. Bayer, the company which produced it, contested the claim and as a result, Baytril remained in use until July 2005.


To prevent any residues of antibiotics in chicken meat, any given antibiotics are required to have a "withdrawal" period before they can be slaughtered. Samples of poultry at slaughter are randomly tested by the FSIS, and shows a very low percentage of residue violations 


Arsenic



Poultry feed can also include roxarsone or nitarsone, arsenical antimicrobial drugs that also promote growth. Roxarsone was used as a broiler starter by about 70% of the broiler growers between 1995 to 2000.[49] The drugs have generated controversy because it contains arsenic, which is highly toxic to humans. This arsenic could be transmitted through run-off from the poultry yards. A 2004 study by the U.S. magazine Consumer Reports reported "no detectable arsenic in our samples of muscle" but found "A few of our chicken-liver samples has an amount that according to EPA standards could cause neurological problems in a child who ate 2 ounces of cooked liver per week or in an adult who ate 5.5 ounces per week." The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), however, is the organization responsible for the regulation of foods in America, and all samples tested were "far less than the... amount allowed in a food product."


TAFL & GRAN - Page 2 140px-Roxarsone


Roxarsone, a controversial arsenic compound used as a nutritional supplement for chickens.

Growth hormones



Hormone use in poultry production is illegal in the United States. Similarly, no chicken meat for sale in Australia is fed hormones. Several scientific studies have documented the fact that chickens grow rapidly because they are bred to do so, not because of growth hormones. A small producer of natural and organic chickens confirmed this assumption:


"Using hormones to boost egg production was a brief fad in the Forties, but was abandoned because it didn't work. Using hormones to produce soft-meated roasters lasted into the Fifties, but the improved growth rates of normal, untreated broilers made the practice irrelevant--the broilers got as big as anyone wanted without chemicals. The only hormone that was ever used in any quantity on poultry (DES) was banned in 1959, and everyone but a few die-hard farmers had given up hormones by then, anyway. Hormones are now illegal in poultry and eggs."

E. coli



According to Consumer Reports, "1.1 million or more Americans [are] sickened each year by undercooked, tainted chicken." A USDAstudy discovered E. coli (Biotype I) in 99% of supermarket chicken, the result of chicken butchering not being a sterile process. However, the same study also shows that the strain of E. coli found was always a non-lethal form, and no chicken had any of the pathenogenic O157:H7 serotype. Many of these chickens, furthermore, had relatively low levels of contamination.


Feces tend to leak from the carcass until the evisceration stage, and the evisceration stage itself gives an opportunity for the interior of the carcass to receive intestinal bacteria. (So does the skin of the carcass, but the skin presents a better barrier to bacteria and reaches higher temperatures during cooking).
 
Before 1950, this was contained largely by not eviscerating the carcass at the time of butchering, deferring this until the time of retail sale or in the home. This gave the intestinal bacteria less opportunity to colonize the edible meat. 


The development of the "ready-to-cook broiler" in the 1950s added convenience while introducing risk, under the assumption that end-to-end refrigeration and thorough cooking would provide adequate protection. E. coli can be killed by proper cooking times, but there is still some risk associated with it, and its near-ubiquity in commercially farmed chicken is troubling to some. Irradiation has been proposed as a means of sterilizing chicken meat after butchering.
Salmonella too can be stressful on poultry production, how it causes disease has been investigated in some detail.


Avian influenza



Main article: Avian influenza
There is also a risk that crowded conditions in chicken farms will allow avian influenza (bird flu) to spread quickly. A United Nations press release states: "Governments, local authorities and international agencies need to take a greatly increased role in combating the role of factory-farming, commerce in live poultry, and wildlife markets which provide ideal conditions for the virus to spread and mutate into a more dangerous form..."


Efficiency



Farming of chickens on an industrial scale relies largely on high protein feeds derived from soyabeans; in the European Union the soybean dominates the protein supply for animal feed, and the poultry industry is the largest consumer of such feed. Two kilograms of grain must be fed to poultry to produce 1 kg of weight gain, much less than that required for pork or beef. However, for every gram of protein consumed, chickens yield only 0.33 g of edible protein.


Economic factors



Changes in commodity prices for poultry feed have a direct effect on the cost of doing business in the poultry industry. For instance, a significant rise in the price of corn in the United States can put significant economic pressure on large industrial chicken farming operations.


World chicken population



The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimated that in 2002 there were nearly sixteen billion chickens in the world, counting a total population of 15,853,900,000. The figures from the Global Livestock Production and Health Atlas for 2004 were as follows:

[list="margin-top: 0.3em; margin-right: 0px; margin-left: 3.2em; padding-right: 0px; padding-left: 0px; list-style-image: none; color: rgb(37, 37, 37); font-family: sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 22px;"]
[*]China (3,860,000,000)

[*]United States (1,970,000,000)

[*]Indonesia (1,200,000,000)

[*]Brazil (1,100,000,000)

[*]Pakistan (691,948,000)

[*]India (648,830,000)

[*]Mexico (540,000,000)

[*]Russia (340,000,000)

[*]Japan (286,000,000)

[*]Iran (280,000,000)

[*]Turkey (250,000,000)

[*]Bangladesh (172,630,000)

[*]Nigeria (143,500,000)

[/list]
In 2009 the annual chicken population in factory farms was estimated at 50 billion, with 6 billion raised in the European Union, over 9 billion raised in the United States and more than 7 billion in China.


Courtesy : Wikipedia

Nice work.  pointing valuable info.

30TAFL & GRAN - Page 2 Empty Re: TAFL & GRAN Thu Jun 04, 2015 2:34 pm

VALUEPICK

VALUEPICK
Expert
Expert
Chicken prices have soared in India after heat wave. Temperature is not suitable for chickens there. Millions of chickens are dying. There will be shortage in poultry products in India as well. Globally, poultry output will go down dramatically in the coming two years due to latest development in the poultry world. 
 
The severe heat wave has killed more than 50 lakh chicken across Telangana in two weeks in India pushing prices of chicken in the retail market to over Rs 200 a kg for the first time in both states.The heavy poultry mortality, which has not spared neighbouring Andhra Pradesh either, has sent prices of chicken and eggs skyrocketing.

Wholesale consumer-grade eggs hit all time high on Tuesday in global poultry market. Domestic egg production is expected to fall in 2015 according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture. It will take 18 months to two years to replenish the country’s flock of laying hens, according to an analyst at the Egg Industry Center in Ames, Iowa. 
The latest development in the poultry world could affect corn prices. There will be further pressure on animal feed prices.
 
Other regional poultry producers will become winners. TAFL will become not only golden egg but also golden hen and chick.

31TAFL & GRAN - Page 2 Empty Re: TAFL & GRAN Sat Aug 08, 2015 10:03 am

VALUEPICK

VALUEPICK
Expert
Expert
CIS has made attractive earnings mainly due to above average performance of Agribusiness and livestock sector including its feed business. Therefore, we can reasonably expect attractive earnings from GRAN as well. We will wait and see.
 
CIC made
 
EPS of 1.68 quarter ending 31/03/2015
EPS of 3.20 quarter ending 30/06/2015
 
GRAN made
 
EPS of 2.80 quarter ending 31/03/2015
EPS of ...?   Quarter ending 30/06/2015

32TAFL & GRAN - Page 2 Empty Re: TAFL & GRAN Sat Aug 08, 2015 6:17 pm

kassachandi


Assistant Vice President - Equity Analytics
Assistant Vice President - Equity Analytics
GRAN will record a EPS of over 4 for sure.so this will move towards 80 in next week.

33TAFL & GRAN - Page 2 Empty Re: TAFL & GRAN Sun Aug 09, 2015 1:23 am

chamil1


Manager - Equity Analytics
Manager - Equity Analytics
@VALUEPICK wrote:
CIS has made attractive earnings mainly due to above average performance of Agribusiness and livestock sector including its feed business. Therefore, we can reasonably expect attractive earnings from GRAN as well. We will wait and see.
 
CIC made
 
EPS of 1.68 quarter ending 31/03/2015
EPS of 3.20 quarter ending 30/06/2015
 
GRAN made
 
EPS of 2.80 quarter ending 31/03/2015
EPS of ...?   Quarter ending 30/06/2015

By June quarter CIC profits from Agricultural & Livestock Industry has come DOWN by nearly 50% QoQ

So your above analysis will not give a positive proxy assumption

34TAFL & GRAN - Page 2 Empty Re: TAFL & GRAN Sun Aug 09, 2015 1:52 am

Yahapalanaya

Yahapalanaya
Senior Vice President - Equity Analytics
Senior Vice President - Equity Analytics
@VALUEPICK wrote:
CIS has made attractive earnings mainly due to above average performance of Agribusiness and livestock sector including its feed business. Therefore, we can reasonably expect attractive earnings from GRAN as well. We will wait and see.
 
CIC made
 
EPS of 1.68 quarter ending 31/03/2015
EPS of 3.20 quarter ending 30/06/2015
 
GRAN made
 
EPS of 2.80 quarter ending 31/03/2015
EPS of ...?   Quarter ending 30/06/2015 My prediction between 4-7

35TAFL & GRAN - Page 2 Empty Re: TAFL & GRAN Sun Aug 09, 2015 4:23 am

VALUEPICK

VALUEPICK
Expert
Expert
Thank you for different ideas and estimation. It is time to study bigger picture rather than talking more about one to three quarter results. Then we can find out some great opportunities. Future earnings are more important than past earnings.
 

Good luck!

36TAFL & GRAN - Page 2 Empty Re: TAFL & GRAN Sun Aug 09, 2015 8:01 am

chamil1


Manager - Equity Analytics
Manager - Equity Analytics
@VALUEPICK wrote:Thank you for different ideas and estimation. It is time to study bigger picture rather than talking more about one to three quarter results. Then we can find out some great opportunities. Future earnings are more important than past earnings.
 

Good luck!
VP,

I am not saying GRAN and TAFL are bad shares .

What i have mentioned is that the proxy calculation you used is logically flawed towards the point you are trying to establish - due to the QoQ drop seen in the sector analysis.

Anyway, your analysis is very good and commendable and you were the first to identify this sector atleast 6 months back.

37TAFL & GRAN - Page 2 Empty Re: TAFL & GRAN Sun Aug 09, 2015 8:32 am

VALUEPICK

VALUEPICK
Expert
Expert
Thanks. I target profit of more than four quarters for safer side. Still we can make mistakes and losses. However we cannot make losses or profit all the time.  
 
Not only poultry stocks there were lot of opportunities in this market. There were few banks and financial stocks.   Another one is ACL. It had its own uptrend. We should follow this as well. Lower raw materials prices will benefit lot of food and other production processing companies. We cannot predict bull market top.
 
I am also looking for out of favour stocks. Today’s loss making companies will make profits in the future. If a company cannot make profit during next two years to five years then it is not worth to keep those companies unless we see strong turnaround.
In addition, some are cyclical stocks and some non cyclical stocks. According to the stage of bull market  there will be demand for different types of stocks as well.
 

Good luck!



Last edited by VALUEPICK on Sun Aug 09, 2015 8:37 am; edited 1 time in total (Reason for editing : to adjust a sentence.)

38TAFL & GRAN - Page 2 Empty Re: TAFL & GRAN Sun Aug 09, 2015 9:26 am

SLBOY


Senior Manager - Equity Analytics
Senior Manager - Equity Analytics
@chamil1 wrote:
@VALUEPICK wrote:
CIS has made attractive earnings mainly due to above average performance of Agribusiness and livestock sector including its feed business. Therefore, we can reasonably expect attractive earnings from GRAN as well. We will wait and see.
 
CIC made
 
EPS of 1.68 quarter ending 31/03/2015
EPS of 3.20 quarter ending 30/06/2015
 
GRAN made
 
EPS of 2.80 quarter ending 31/03/2015
EPS of ...?   Quarter ending 30/06/2015

By June quarter CIC profits from Agricultural & Livestock Industry has come DOWN by nearly 50% QoQ

So your above analysis will not give a positive proxy assumption
@chamil1.
PBT of agricultural and livestock of CIC has increased by 54%. Is' nt it?

39TAFL & GRAN - Page 2 Empty Re: TAFL & GRAN Sun Aug 09, 2015 3:53 pm

kassachandi


Assistant Vice President - Equity Analytics
Assistant Vice President - Equity Analytics
Next phase of run will see GRAN touching 80.after that reports will decide whether GRAN will reach 90 or 100

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